Geothermal energy is stored in the earth's crust and can be extracted by heat pumps through systems probes.
Geothermal energy is the sum of two main components: the heat coming from the deepest layers of the earth and the heat coming from the external environment originating from the sun. The ambient heat that originates from the sun affects only the most layer superficial Earth's crust and loses relevance beyond the already 20 m depth.
Beyond this depth, the earth's temperature is around 13-15 ° C up to about 100 m: Beyond this depth becomes influential the geothermal gradient due to heat from from the center of the earth, An increase of temperature 30 1000 ° C per m.
The thermal energy stored in the ground can be enhanced through a heat pump and used for air conditioning.
The conventional geothermal applications include a system of heat exchangers where a flowing fluid: In winter the earth loses heat to the fluid which in turn transfers it to the heat pump.
The heat exchange with the extended heat transfer fluid can produce the cooling of the soil: You can reverse this process with the summer operationBy circulating a fluid warmer in the soil resulting from the processes of cooling.
The medium is used in this way as tank storage tank in the summer and in the winter collection.
For cooling needs not high, it may by-pass the heat pump, using the only difference in temperature of the soil to obtain the conditions of comfort required in environment: it speaks in this case of free-cooling with which it is possible to obtain also a significant reduction of operating costs.
A distinction concerning geothermal systems is that between low and high enthalpy enthalpy for enthalpy means the thermal energy stored in a given mass.
In reference to a geothermal system is therefore speaks of system low enthalpy for fields
geothermal with temperatures below 100 ° C; for temperatures of the working fluid over 100 ° C instead of speaking high enthalpy: The use of a low enthalpy geothermal field is much easier because of the low depth in the game.
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